SERT m n REA n qat spent ge BP M0 p erg 7 p m HP A 07 NIIS re M. Ty PR ns e Rt, m Rn te a n mem



II BOOKS II (continued) 35-I1V, 58








-—-— »

First printed 1935 Reprinted 1953, 1961, 1967

Printed ín Great Britaín



INTRODUCTION TO BOOKS II, 2Ó5-1v, 58 BOOK II (contmued) . . . . .

BOOK HIE ue x (x ox Xo

BOokK Iv, 1-58 . . .





dt end


Dook II, 35-42 is devoted to a brief description of India which was ultimately derived from Megasthenes. Although Diodorus does not mention this author, his use of him is established by the similarity between his account of India and the Indica of Arrian and the description of that land by Strabo, both of whom avowedly drew their material from that writer. Megasthenes was in the service of Seleucus Nicator and in connection with embassies to the court of king Sandracottu- (Chandragupta) at Patna was in India for some time between 302 and 291 m.c. In his Zndica in four Books he was not guilty of the romances of Ctesias, but it is plain that he was iraposed upon by inter- preters and guides, as was Herodotus on his visit to Egypt. lt cannot be known whether Diodorus used Megasthenes directly or through a medium; his failure to mention his name a single time is a little surprising, if he used him directly.! "The Scythians, the Amazons of Asia Minor, and the Hyperboreans are then briefly discussed, and Chapters 48-54 are devoted to Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. lt is thought that this last section may go

! On Megasthenes see now B. C. J. Timmer, Megasthenes en de Indische Maatschappij, Amsterdam, 1930. vii


back to the Stoic philosopher, Poseidonius of Apameia, especially because of its explanation of the varied colouring of birds and different kinds of animals as being due to the '" helpful influence and strength of the sun." The Book closes with a description of a fabulous people living in a political Utopia on an island ' in the ocean to the south,"' the account purporting to be the adventure of a certain Iambulus, which may indeed be the name of the author of the original tale.

The Third Book opens with an account of the Ethiopians on the upper Nile, then deseribes the working of the gold mines on the border between Egypt and Ethiopia, and includes a long discussion of the Red Sea and the peoples dwelling about it, with some mention of the tribes along the shores of the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. Much of this material was drawn from the geographer Agatharchides of Cnidus, whose work, On the Hed Sea, is preserved to us in the excerpts of Photius. This work of Agatharchides, composed in the latter part of the sccond century n.c., embraced five Books and is on the whole a sober and fairly trustworthy discussion of that region; much of it was certainly based upon the stories and accounts of travellers in these parts and on personal observation. With chapter 49 Diodorus turns to Libya and embarks upon the myths of the Libyans about the Gorgons and Amazons, this subject serving to lead him over into Greek mythology, which is the theme of the entire Fourth Book.

Since, as Diodorus tells as, Ephorus, and Callis- thenes and Theopompus, contemporaries of Ephorus, had not included the myths in their histories,



Diodorus opens the Fourth Book with a defence of his exposition of Greek mythology. The gods were once kings and heroes who have been deified because of the great benefits which they conferred upon mankind; they have been the object of veneration by men of old and we " should not fail to cherish and maintain for the gods the pious devotion which has been handed down to us from our fathers "' (ch. 8. 5); if their deeds appear superhuman it is because they are measured by the weakness of the men of Diodorus' day. Much of this material was drawn directly from Dionysius of Mitylene who lived in Alexandria in the second century n.c. and composed, doubtless with the aid of the library in that city and certainly with considerable indulgence in the romantic, his KyLlos, a kind of encyclopaedia of mythology, which included accounts of the Argonauts, Dionysus, the Amazons, events connected with the Trojan War, and all this he described with such devotion and assiduity that he was given the nick- name Skytobrachion (' of the leathern arm "). lt is generally held that for his account of Heracles Diodorus took generously from a Praise of Heracles bv Matris of Thebes,! who is otherwise unknown and composed his encomium with vigorous rhetorical flourishes, taking care to mention every maiden ravished bv Heracles and her child, in order to establish Heraclean ancestry for the numerous families in the Greek world which raised such a claim. But here and there, when he touched the western Mediterranean, Diodorus used Timaeus of Tauromenium, who, an exile in Athens for the best

! Cp. E. Holzer, Matris, ein Beitrag zur Quellenkritik Diodors, Program Tübingen, 1881. lx


fifty years of his life, completed, not long before his death about 250 m.c. and almost altogether from literary sources, a history of Sicily and the western Mediterranean in thirty-eight Books. Any attempt to continue further the quest for the sources of Diodorus in this section of his work must run into the sands.








35. 'H rotvvv Ivéuci) TerpámAevpos o0ca cy"uaTt, T7?v Lév cpós àvaroÀàs vevovcav mrAevpav Kai TTV «pos ! pneonupptav 7) peyáÀ meptéxet ÜdAarra, T)v OÓé vwpos TÀÓS üpkKTOUS TO "Hiieoóóv ópos Oetpyyec js 22kvÜtas, rjv ka oucotat TÀv MkvÜOv oi mpocayopevópevor Záxav T7v 8€ rerapriyv * TpÓs Ovctav éoTpaguiévmv oteiAnoev. Ó ']voos mpoca'yopevópLevos TOTQMÓS, fiéytoTOS (DV TÓVv Tüvrov perà TÓv NetÀov. «0 0€ péyeÜos Ts | OÀ«"s Jvóucis $acw vzdpyew dzÓ pév avaToÀOv TpOs OUcLV Ow ivptcov OKTO.KAGYLÀ UV cgTaOiv, àTO O€é rÓVv üpkToVv TpOS peonpptav TpLO|LUDUuOV Oto yLAGov. TgÀuaUTg Ó' oca TO péycÜos Soket voÓ kóopnov páAora eptéyew TOv TOv Üepudv -poxdv kkAov, kat ToAÀAaxm puer ém àkpas Tíjs 'lvOucágs (Oetv &oTw dokiovs Ovras TOUS yvopovas, vuKTOs Tàs üÓpkToUS

| zjr rpós Bekker: cpós D, r5)v 7p0s T7?» Vulgate. ? 71v after rezaprgv omitted by D, Dekker, Vogel.

1 'he Indian Ocean.




35. Now India is four-sided in shape and the side which faces east and that which faces south are em- braced by the Great Sea,! while that which faces north is separated by the Emodus range of mountains from that part of Scythia which is inhabited by the Scythians known as the Sacae; and the fourth side, which is turned towards the west, is marked off by the river known as the Indus, which is the largest of all streams after the Nile. As for its magnitude, India as a whole, they say, extends from east to west twenty-eight thousand stades, and from north to south thirty-two thousand. And because it is of such magnitude, it is believed to take in a greater extent of the sun's course in summer ? than any other part of the world, and in many places at the Cape of India the gnomons of sundials may be seen which do not cast a shadow, while at night the Bears are

? Lit. '* of the summer turnings " of the sun, 1.e., the course which the sun seems to traverse in the heavens from the &olstice on June 22 to the equinox in September, corresponding to the part of the earth lying between the Tropie of Cancer and the equator.



aDewcpY rovs: év 86 rois éoyárois o0Ó ajrOÓv TOV &pkroüpov d$aiveoÜav | kaÜ" óv Or vómov! $aoi kai Tüs aktàs kekAiaÜat mpós neanuptaw.

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| rózov Hertlein: rpózov.


BOOK II. 35. 2-36. 2

not visible; in the most southerly parts not even Arcturus can be seen, and indeed in that region, they say, the shadows fall towards the south.!

Now India has many lofty mountains that abound in fruit trees of every variety, and many large and fertile plains, which are remarkable for their beauty and are supplied with water by a multitude of rivers. The larger part of the country is well watered and for this reason yields two crops each year; and it abounds in all kinds of animals, remarkable for their great size and strength, land animals as well as birds. It also breeds elephants both in the greatest numbers and of the largest size, providing them with sustenance in abundance, and it is because of this food that the elephants of this land are much more powerful than those produced in Libya; consequently large numbers of them are made captive by the Indians and trained for warfare, and it is found that they play a great part in turning the scale to victory.

36. The same is true of the inhabitants also, the abundant supply of food making them of unusual height and bulk of body ; and another result is that they are also skilled in the arts, since they breathe a pure air and drink water of the finest quality. And the earth, in addition to producing every fruit which admits of cultivation, also contains rich under- ground veins of every kind of ore; for there are found in it much silver and gold, not a little copper and iron, and tin also and whatever else is suitable

! Cp. Strabo, 2. 5. 37 : '' In all the regions that lie between the tropic and the equator the shadows fall in both directions, that is, towards the north and towards the south . . . and the inhabitants are called AÁmphiscians " (?.e., *' throwing shadowa8 both ways"; tr. of Jones in L.C.L.).


3 mapackevyv vükovra. xopis O€ TOv ÓOmum- TpuaKiv kapmáv $Uerac kara Trjv. "lvouerv v0AÀ) Lhév Kéyypos, dpOevonév] Tf TÓÀV morapiov va- , / M ? » à / náTov OajuÀeta, moÀ) O Oompiov kat Ouopov, / A ér. O. Opu&ía Kat O srpocayopevójuevos Bóomopos, M] M ^5 » M ^ 1 M! KaL peràü TraUr GAAÀa ToÀÀA TOV mpOs OwwrpodQmv / A xpuouuov: Kat Tro)UTrOV TOÀÀÀ Ümzápyev aU- ^ » 3v / A N » ? / TOQvf. o)k OÀcyovus O€ kat GÀÀovus éOcOiuovs KapzoUs $épeu Ovvajuévous Trpéóew CdÀa, mepi Qv parkpov àv et ypàóew. Ml MI / 4 ? M! ? ^ (0 Kat $aot uoóérore cr)v. "lvOucv émayety A ^ Aunóv 37) kaÜóAov omàwnv Tv mpós Tpojmv "epov àvqkóvrov. OvrTOv yàp ouDpov év a)Tij ywopévcov ka" éxaoTov éros, ToU uév yewuepwob, kaÜa Tapà TOig GÀÀow, oTmópos TÀYv TUpUV QV yivera Gp TOU Ó. érépov Kaá TTJV Üepurv Tpomiv : aTeipeaÜat vp patvet TTV opubav Kat TOV Booropov, éTL Óé o"cauov kai Kéyxpov: KüTà TO TÀetorov ajijorépois TO!Ss kapsoís Karà Trv 'lvóucv émvrvyyávovot, vávrov Óé, TeÀeaopovuévov Üarépou TÓv kapmóv, ok dTOTUyXyüvouGWw. oL T€ aDTOUOT(iGOVTEeS KQp3roL A M V e / / 7 e? Kai aL KaTQ TOUS €Àdcewg TOTOUS $vOpnevac piat Ou4$opow Talis 'yAÀvkÜrqow o)cat moAMv Tapé- xovrau Toís avÜpaymous. OnitÀeuav: srávra. yap gxeo0v KQ.TÀ TV Xcopav rreüta, yAvketay exe: v àTO TÓV moTOUV ipia, kai T QTO TÓV ouppuv vÀv €v TQ Üépev? kar! évwavróv kukAwi] TUL Tepi00q mapa8Oófes eioÜórov yiveoÜa:,

|! ka8' 7v after rporzjv deleted by Vogel. ? Jwopuévcov after 0épe. deleted by Reiske.

BOOK II. 36. 2-;

for adornment, necessity, and the trappings of war. In addition to the grain of Demeter! there grows throughout India much millet, which is irrigated by the abundance of running water supplied by the rivers, pulse in large quantities and of superior quality, rice also and the plant called bosporos,* and in addition to these many more plants which are useful for food ; and most of these are native to the country. It also yields not a few other edible fruits, that are able to sustain animal life, but to write about them would be a long task.

This is the reason, they say, why a famine has never visited India? or, in general, any scarcity of what is suitable for gentle fare. For since there are two rainy seasons in the country each year, during the winter rains the sowing is made of the wheat crops as among other peoples, while in the second, which comes at the summer solstice, it is the general practice to plant the rice and bosporos, as well as sesame and millet; and in most years the Indians are successful in both crops, and they never lose everything, since the fruit of one or the other sowing comes to maturity. 'The fruits also which flourish wild and the roots which grow in the marshy places, by reason of their remarkable sweetness, provide the people with a great abundance of food. For practically all the plains of India enjoy the sweet moisture from the rivers and from the rains which come with astonishing regularity, in a kind of fixed

! Wheat.

? A kind of millet; called bosmoron in Strabo, 15. 1. 13.

3 ''his statement may be true in the sense of a general and protracted famine; but the Buddhist records often refer to scarcity of food because of drought or floods; «ep. The Cambridge History of India, 1. p. 203.



Sas etg, ! xAapóv mUmTÓVTOV jOGTOV é€k ToO meptéxovros. dépos, Kat Tüs €v Tots €Àeow piLas éjovros TobÜ kavDpaTos, ka& uáAvoTa, TÓV jLeydAcv KaAdqucov . cvupdAMovra O€ -apà Tots 'lvootg kal vópupua TpÓs pijoésrore évOetav. 7poójs Tap ajrots. elvat zapà guév yàp Tois dÀAotus avÜpoyrows ot zoÀAéptov karadÜeipovres 7')jv xopav d'yedypyTov kara akeud.Covat, 7aQpà ToUrots TÓVv yecpyÓv (epOv kai àgvAmv ecypévov, ot zÀqctov rÓÀv maparáéecv yecpyoüvres ave- vaicÜwnrow TÓVv kiwOUvcv «etotv. apdjórepot yàp ot vroAep.oÜvres aAMijAovs Lev GToKTelvougw ev rats LXxats, TOUS 0€ epi Tv yecopytav Ovras éjow apAapets, (S KOwwvOUS OvTaS GTrüvTCV eUepyéras, Tás T€ x«Opas TÓV üvrUuroAeuoUvrov OUT epmopibovaw oUTe Devüporopiotouw.

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! GaJjiAete Oldfather: 9aJiAeta. D, 8aíAeiav A B, Bekker, Dindorf, Vogel, 8ajtiAexav . . . aépos omitted II.


BOOK II. 36. 5-37. 3

cycle, every year in the summer, since warm showers fallin abundance from the enveloping atmosphere and the heat ripens! the roots in the marshes, especially those of the tall reeds. Furthermore, the customs of the Indians contribute towards there never being any lack of food among them; for whereas in the case of all the rest of mankind their enemies ravage the land and cause it to remain uncultivated, yet among the Indians the workers of the soil are let alone as sacred and inviolable, and such of them as labour near the battle-lines have no feeling of the dangers. For although both parties to the war kill one another in their hostilities, yet they leave unin- jured those who are engaged in tiling the soil, considering that they are the common benefactors of all, nor do they burn the lands of their opponents or eut down their orchards.

31. The land of the Indians has also many large navigable rivers which have their sources in the mountains lying to the north and then flow through the level country ; and not a few of these unite and empty into the river known as the Ganges. This river, which is thirty stades in width, flows from north to south and empties into the ocean, forming the boundary towards the east of the tribe of the Gandaridae, which possesses the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size. Consequently no foreign king has ever subdued this country, all alien

! Literally, ** boils"" or **heats." Strabo (15. 1. 20) says

that what other peoples call the ** ripening " of fruits is called by the Indians the ** heating."




/ / ^ M M ? 4 —- / évcov T€ zAfÜos kat Tiv a Av TÀV Ünpucov. KQi yap "AAé£avópos o Maxeüov d27r&.ams Tíjs 'Áctas KpaTü)cas óvous TOUS D avóaptóas. OUK éroAÀéugoe: karavTcas yàp émzi TOv lüyymv 7TOoTajOov gerà mons Tíjs Ovvápews, kai TOUS &aAAovs 'lvóo)s kxarazoÀen0coas, cs émzUÜero ToUs l|avóapióas | éxew | Terpakwoyt:Atovus éAédavras zoÀeuukds kekoopmpuévovs, dréyvo) TT]v éz abToUs oTpaTé(av.

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! karàüóvrov Dindorf: kardppvrov.

! A fuller account of this incidont is given iu. Book 17. 93. But Alexander did not reach the rivor system of the Ganges, the error being due to a confusion of the Ganges with the


BOOK Il. 357. 3-6

nations being fearful of both the multitude and the strength of the beasts. In fact even Alexander of Macedon, although he had subdued all Asia, refrained from making war upon the Gandaridae alone of all peoples; for when he had arrived at the Ganges river with his entire army, after his conquest of the rest of the Indians, upon learning that the Gandaridae had four thousand elephants equipped for war he gave up his campaign against them.!

The river which is nearly the equal of the Ganges and is called the Indus rises like the Ganges in the north, but as it empties into the ocean forms a boundary of India; and in its course through an expanse of level plain it receives not a few navigable rivers,the most notable being the Iypanis,? Hydaspes, and Acesinus. And in addition to these three rivers a vast number of others of every description traverse the country and bring it about that the land is planted in many gardens and crops of every description. Now for the multitude of rivers and the exceptional supply of water the philosophers and students of nature among them advance the following cause: The countries which surround India, they say, such as Scythia, Dactria, and Ariana, are higher than India, and so it is reasonable to assume that the waters which come together from every side into the country lying below them, gradually cause the regions to become soaked and to generate a multitude of

Sutlej, a tributary of the Indus; cp. W. W. Tarn, '' Alexander and the Ganges," Journal of Hellenic Studies, 43 (1923), 93 ft.

*? In Book 17. 93. 1 and Arrian, 5. 24. 8, this river is called the Hyphasis, which is the name preferred by most modern writers. Strabo (15. 1. 27, 32), however, calls it the H ypanis, and Quintus Curtius (9. 1. 35), Hypasis.



7 "voTauOv TÀfüÜos. iv Tv ovufaive mepi Twa TÓV KaTQ Tv "lveóuc)v morauóv TÓv Ovoua-

/ / 7 * e / Lólevov 24AÀap, péovra Ó' ék mwos OpcovUuov Kpijvns* émi yàp ToUrov uóvov TOv dzávrov zroTa-

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/ , b M M / L4 rávTa Ó. eis rov BvÜOóv karaóverac rrapaó0£cows.

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BOOK Il. 37. 6-38. 3

rivers. And a peculiar thing happens in the case of one of the rivers of India, known as the Silla, which flows from a spring ofthe same name; foritisthe only river in the world possessing the characteristic that nothing cast into it floats, but that everything, strange to say, sinks to the bottom.

98. Now India as a whole, being of a vast extent, is inhabited, as we are told, by many peoples of every description, and not one of them had its first origin in a foreign land, but all of them are thought to be autochthonous; it never receives any colony from abroad nor has it ever sent one to any other people. According to their myths the earliest human beings used for food the fruits of the earth which grew wild, and for clothing the skins of the native animals, as was done by the Greeks. Similarly too the discovery of the several arts and of all other things which are useful for life was made gradually, necessity itself showing the way to a creature which was well endowed by nature and had, as its assistants for every purpose, hands and speech and sagacity of mind.!

The most learned men among the Indians recount a myth which it may be appropriate to set forth in brief form. "This, then, is what they say: In the earliest times, when the inhabitants of their land were still dwelling in scattered clan-villages,? Dionysus came to them from the regions to the west of them with a notable army; and he traversed all India, since there was as yet no notable city which would

? [t was the teaching of Aristotle that the State (or city) rises out of the Household through the intermediate institu- tion of the Village. | So the Indians, in this case, were in the second stage of this evolution; Dionysus, as is stated below, combines the villages into cities and thus makes the good life possible.





à£ioAóyov móAÀecs ! Óvvauévns üvrvrá£aaÜ0aa. | émi- yevouévov 0€ kavudrov peyGÀov, kai TÓv TOoÜ Avovócov oTpaTwoTÓOv Aowukfá vóg«o Ou dÜetpo- Hévov, cvvéoe! Oiaóépovra TOv wyyeuóva oÜTov dTayo'yetv arparómeOov éK TÓÀv meOwdv TÓTQV eis r1)v ópewrTv: év TaUT3 ? 0€ mveóvrov jvypóv àvé- Lev Kat TÀv vaparuaiov 00dTov kallapáv peóvrov 7pós avTats Tails Tw«yais, àAraÀAayiüvau rijs vócov TO OTpaTÓT€OOov. OvopuateoÜa, Óé Ts Opewijs TOv Tómov TobUTov Mnpóv, ka0' óv ó Auóvvoos é£érpee Tüs Ovvajets ék Tíjs vócov: aà$' oD Ov) kai ToUs "EAAmvas sept ToU cob ToUrov mapaóeQckévat TOls peroyyeveaTépous TeÜpádÜa. TÓv Nuivvaov év popa.

Mera 896 -Ta07ra -Tüs mapaÜéoews TÓv kap- mv émuueAnÜévra peraOuQ8óvac. Tots "lvóois, kai T)v «Upegw TOÜ oiov Kai TÓv dGÀÀcov TÓV eis TOv iov wpmatpwv vapaOoÜvat. pos O6 ToUTois "TÓAecov T€ a&uoAóyav yevrÜfvas KTiaTWV, |eraya-- yóvTQ. TS Kapas etg TOUS cüÜérovs TÓTOUS, TLLUÓV T€ karaóetéau TO Üetov kai vópovs eta»ynjaa.aUa.

ai Owaorwypu., kaÜóAov O€ soÀÀÓv kat kaAàv Eoyum eia mynrmv yevop.evov Ücóv vop.vaUrvou Kai rvyetv. àÜavaáTov TuLOV. iaropobot Ó a)DTOV KaL yovaukdv aAfjfos |.era TOÜ OTpaTOTÉéOOU Tepidye- aÜat, kai Kará Tüs €V TOÍS TOÀép.ots. va paTá£ets ruumrávots Kai kou aAois kexpijaÜat, iym adAmey- yos eópypeévns. pacievcavra màons Tfs lvoi-

| 74s after móAecs omitted C D, Dindorf, Vogel, retained by Bekker. ? éy rasr y Dindorf, Vogel: évrab0a C F, Bekker.


BOOK Il. 38. 3-6

have been able to oppose him. But when an op- pressive heat came and the soldiers of Dionysus were being consumed by a pestilential sickness, this leader, who was conspicuous for his wisdom, led his army out of the plains into the hill-country; here, where cool breezes blew and the spring waters flow ed pure at their very sources, the army got rid of its sickness. The name of this region of thé hill-country, where Dionysus relieved his forces of the sickness, is Meros ; and it is because of this fact that the Greeks have handed down to posterity in their account of this god the story that Dionysus was nourished in a thigh (meros).1

After this he took in hand the storing of the fruits and shared this knowledge with the Indians, and he communicated to them the discovery of wine and of all the other things useful for life. Furthermore, he became the founder of notable cities by gathering the villages together in well-situated regions, and he both taught them to honour the deity and intro- duced laws and courts; and, in brief, since he had been the introducer of many good works he was regarded as a god and received immortal honours. They also recount that he carried along with his army a great number of women, and that when he joined battle in his wars he used the sounds of drums and cymbals, since the trumpet had not yet been discovered. And after he had reigned over all

! When Zeus, at the request of Semelé, appeared to her with his thunderbolts, the sight was too much for her mortal eyes and her child by Zeus, Dionysus, was born untimely. Zeus covered the babe in his thigh untilit came to maturity. "There is no agreement among modern writers on the location of Meros.



Kfjs €r1) OUO TrpOS TO ts mrevri]Kovra. ynpa TeAevríjaau. O.a0eGapiévous. Ó€ TOUS ULoUS ajro0 Tv ryyepuoviay aei rots a$' éavrOv àmoAwretv T) àpy)yv: TO 8€ reAevra tov moAÀaíts »yevea.ts Dorepov ka Ta!ÀvÜeians TÍS T" yenovias OnpokparnÜfvaa TÀS mróAets.

39. Hep: uev obv TOÜ /uovicov ka. TÓv dT0- yovcv a)0ToU To.aUTra. i.uÜoAoyoüotv ot Trjv opeun)v Tfüs lvOucfás karoucoüvres. TÓv re 'HpakAéa $aoct 7Tap' avTOo(s yeyevioÜat, kat mapamAqngios Tolg "EAAget józaGÀov kai TV Acov jv aUT(

)cv TO T€ pÓóma TT) Tfjv a)TÓ mrpoaámrouot. TÍíj O6 roÜ oc paros pop) kat dA TOÀÀOD TÓV GAÀÀcV vÜpaymav Oteveyyretv, KaL kaÜapàv 7'0vfcat TÓv Ünptcov yfv Te kat ÜGÀarrav. yn)pavra mÀctovs yvvaixas vioUs , Lev zroÀÀoUs, Üvyarépa nav vyevvíoat, kat TroUrov. évnAikcov yevopévcv 7rácav TV 'Ivóucrv OvcAóuevov ets toas TOÍS TÉkKVOLlS pepioas, GTQVvTQs TOUS VLOUS amoóet£at PBaciuéas, utav 0€ Üvyaépa. Üpélavra, xat UL

3 Baciccav Gmoóc(£aa. kriaTyv T€ T ÓÀeov oUk

OÀCycov yevéaÜat, kat roUTov TT]v érrtGaveaTáTyv kat neytarqv mrpocayopefaa ILaAcBotpa. KQTQOK€U- dca, Ó €v abri) «at paociAeua mroAvreAf] KaL mÀWjÜos oücrópov xaÜipcav riv T€. TÓÀW oxvpOgat. Tá$pots dG£ioÀÓyois morajtots voact TÀqnpovuévaus.| xat TÓv gév "HpakMa T)v éÉ avÜpoov pueráoraow —owjcópuevov | àÜavarov Tuyetv Tuus, To)Dg Ó' dzoyóvovs avT70oÜ0 paot- AeUcavras émt moÀÀàs yeveàs kat mpátewg a£io- Aóyovs peraxewiwapévovs pre orpareiav bmep-

1 cAnpovuévaig Rhodomann: zAgpovuévows C F, sÀnpovuévqy ols


BOOK II. 38. 6-39. 4

India for fifty-two years he died of old age. His sons, who succeeded to the sovereignty, passed the rule on successively to their descendants; but finally, many generations later, their sovereignty was dissolved and the cities received a democratic form of government.

39. As for Dionysus, then, and his descendants, such is the myth as it is related by the inhabitants of the hill-country of India. And with regard to Heracles they say that he was born among them and they assign to him, in common with the Greeks, both the club and the lion's skin. Moreover, as their account tells us, he was far superior to all other men in strength of body and in courage, and cleared both land and sea of their wild beasts. And marrying several wives, he begot many sons, but only one daughter; and when his sons attained to manhood, dividing al India into as many parts as he had male children, he appointed all his sons kings, and rearing his single daughter he appointed her also a queen.! Likewise, he became the founder of not a few cities, the most renowned and largest of which he called Palibothra. In this city he also constructed a costly palace and settled a multitude of inhabitants, and he fortified it with remarkable ditches which were filled with water from the river. And when Heracles passed from among men he received immortal honour, but his descendants, though they held the kingship during many genera- tions and accomplished notable deeds, made no campaign beyond their own frontiers and despatched

! Arrian, Zndica, 8 f., gives a much fuller account of this daughter, whose name was Pandaea.



/ 74 0 / » J 5 Ld » 1 ópiov TowjcacÜa,. pijre àmowtav eig GÀÀo &Üvos P] ^ e; M! ^ » X / dToO0Te(Àauu. vVaTepov 0€ rroAÀots érect Tàs vrÀAeio Tas Lév TÓÀv móÀeov OuuokparnÜnva, Twv O0. éÜvàv

& / ^ / ^ ?

Tàs DaociAelas Owapetvau uéypi Ts. AAe£avópov OuuBaocecws. / ? » M A ? ^ » ^7 ?

Nogucov 9. óvrc Tapà. Tots lvóois évicov é£9A- Aoyp.évcov ÓavjaawóraTov àv Tts 1)y1]oavTO TO kara- Oe.yÜév ózÓ vrÀv apyaiov map aDTots diAo0ó ov: vevot.oÜérnrat yàp ap. abrois Oo0Àov uév uxoéva


elyau 70 mapámrav, éAevÜépovs 8' bDmápxovras Tv icórqura Tuiüv év máci. To)g yàp puaÜóvras ux / / f)? ; » , ef Ómepéyew pO. Dzoxürrew aAÀÀow kpürtoTov ébew Diov «pós áxácas ràs TepioTdgeig: eUnÜes? yàp elva. vóuovs uév ém (ons mÜévau mái, ràg O' gvvovatas ? àvcyuáAovs kaackevátew.

40. To záv vÀfjQos ràv 'ivóOv eis érà uép Owjpyrat, Qv eor. uév spárov avorqua. duAoaó- $cov, mAnÜe. uév TOv GAAÀcv jepOv Aevmojuevov, Tíj 9 émijaveia mávrow vpwreÜov. | dAevrovpynrot

s » e L4 e Li "0^ yàp Ovres ot d$uÀócoQor -áags D$-ovpylas oU e ? 7/7 3 hn» e » e / / érépow kvpieDovow oUD' 09 érépuv OcamoCovra. rapaAauávovrat 8 ómó uév vÀv DOwuorQv ets 7e Tàs év TQ Báo Üvoías kai eig rüs TÓv rereAevrrkóTow émuLeAe(as, cs Üeots yeyovóres vpoodiAéara Toi kai mepi TÀv év dOov pudor éjwmetpos €xovres,

^ ^ M raíTrus Te Tíjs Dmovpyias OOpá Te kai Tuuiàs

1 dAÀo &0vog CF, Dindorf, Bekker: àAAoe0pretg remaining MSS., Vogel.

? eóy0üces Rhodomann: «evz60eis.

3 So Capps: ovoías MSS., Vogel, é£ovotas Dindorf, Bekker. 18

BOOK Il. 39. 4-409. 2

no colony to any other people. But many years later most of the cities had received a democratic form of government, although among certain tribes the kingship endured until the time when Alexander crossed over into Asia.

As for the customs of the Indians which are peculiar to them, a man may consider one which was drawn up by their ancient wise men to be the most worthy of admiration; for the law has ordained that under no circumstances shall anyone among them be a slave, but that all shall be free and respect the principle of equality in all persons. For those, they think, who have learned neither to domineer over others nor to subject themselves to others will enjoy a manner of life best suited to all circumstances; since it is silly to make laws on the basis of equality for all persons, and yet to establish inequalities in social intercourse.

40. The whole multitude of the Indians is divided into seven castes,! the first of which is formed of the order of the philosophers, which in number is smaller than the rest of the castes, but in dignity ranks first. For being exempt from any service to the state the philosophers are neither the masters nor the servants of the others. But thev are called upon by the private citizens both to offer the sacrifices which are required in their lifetime and to perform the rites for the dead, as having proved themselves to be most dear to the gods and as being especially ex- perienced in the matters that relate to the under- world, and for this service they receive both notable

! Cp. the account of the castes in Strabo, 15. 1. 39 ff., and

in Arrian, Zndíca, ll ff. and the article :/Caste" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica.



d / ^ ^ ^ Aapfávovow à£toAóyovs: TQ O6 kowd vàv 'Iróov , ; / LeydÀas vapéxyovrat xpetas zrapaAauBavópuevot uév M d 5 KQTG& véov éros ézi TT?V ueydAmv aUvoOov, rpo- / N ^ / —^ Aéyovres rots mAvÜeot epi aDypv kat ésrop.- / ? ^ Bpías, ér. 0 üvéjov. ebnvolas kat vóocv kat TOv y ^ / N 3 ; ? ^ &GAÀAv TrÀv Ovvauévov To)0s àkoUovras od$eAfoat. X , N / e N jéAÀÀovra yàp zpoakoUcavres ot 7e roÀÀot kat o x ? ES 3138 M / b 4 M PaciAeüs ékzAqpoüow aei T0 uéAAov ékAevrew kat / ^ / ? zpokarackeválovow aei rv. TÀV xpuouQuov. o Ó aTorvyov TOV d$iocóóov év rais mpoppuQceow y M 5 ; ? , L/ n)! dAÀqv uév oj0epíav ava8éyerat TuLo)piav 7) BAaa- / » N ^ M i / ónucav, &dcvos 0€ OuvreAet rÓv Aovzóv Btov. , ^ ^ ^4 ^ Acürepov Ó' éori uépos TO TÓÀV yecpyOv, ot 7 ^ » M] 7 ^ ^«^ zÀnÜeu rv &ÀMov m0À mpoéyew Ookoüaww. | obrot M / N ^ X L4 * / 0€ voAÀépv kat Tfjs &ÀXQgs Aevrovpytas. &$eutévot N E A 7epi Tàs yecopyias doyoAoÜvrav Kai oUOets àv / ^ zroÀéutos mrepyrvxo» yeopyQ karà TT)v xcópav àouaj- cevev dv,! adÀA es kowoUs eDepyéras mTjyoUpLevot / 3 L4 3 , / 5 / e 5 TdOns dOu(as dzéyovrat. OuvóTep aou Üopos 7) ^^ A ycpa. Owupévovca kai kapzots DpiÜovoa sroAAQv E ^ ? L4 ^ b dTóÀavotw mapéyerau TÓv émwvriOeicov rots avÜpo- A A A * / N Tots. Piobou. OÓ. émi Ti]s xcppas pera TÉéKVov kal Lon ^^ ? yuva4K()v ot yecpyyot, kai Tfjs ets Tv zTOÀw kKara- Dácews mavreAÓs ad$eorQkaoi. Tíjs Ó€ xopas M ^ ^ ^ N M ^ M pugÜobs TeÀo0cw v DaciAet Ou TO mücav Twv

'»'$uejv. Baauuerv etvas, (wor 0€ uuóevws yfjv

! dy D, Dindorf, Vogel: omitted by Vulgate, Dekker.


BOOK 1l. 4o. 2-5

gifts and honours. Moreover, they furnish great services to the whole body of the Indians, since they are invited at the beginning of the year to the Great Synod and foretell to the multitude droughts and rains, as well as the favourable blowing of winds, and epidemies, and whatever else can be of aid to their auditors. For both the common folk and the king, by learning in advance what is going to take place, store up from time to time that of which there will be a shortage and prepare beforehand from time to time anything that will be needed. And the philosopher who has erred! in his predic- tions is subjected to no other punishment than obloquy and keeps silenee for the remainder of his life.

The second caste is that of the farmers, who, it would appear, are far more numerous tlian the rest. These, being exempt from war duties and every other service to the state, devote their entire time to labour in the fields; and no enemy, coming upon a farmer in the country, would think of doing him inpiry, but they look upon the farmers as eommon benefactors and therefore refrain from every injury to them.* Consequently the land, remaining as it does unravaged and being laden with fruits, pro- vides the inhabitants with a great supply of pro- visions. Ánd the farmers spend their lives upon the land with their children and wives and refrain entirely from coming down into the city. For the land they pay rent to the king, since all India is royal land and no man of private station is permitted

| Strabo (loc. cit.) says he must have erred ''three times."' ? Cp. chap. 30. 6 f. 2l



c&etva. kekríjaUau" xopis 06 Tíijs puo0caews rerdp- TWV eis TO DaaiAucóv TeAo0at. Toc 8 À ^ 7 N pirov egi $óAov TÓV PovkóAav kal mOuLEvav kai kaÜóAov mávrOY TÓV Vopéav, Ot TOÀ u€v 7 Kom OUK oLkoQat, kir 0€ Bim Xpóvrau, ot o adroL kai kvviyyobvres kaBlapàv 7r'0LOUGL Tv Xopav ópvécv T€ Kül Ünpiov. ets Taro. Ó aackoüvres kai diAorexvobvres ! é£npu.epoüot Ty» "lvoucjv, mAyÜoveav TOÀÀÓv kai mravroOomáv Ünpiww re kai ópvécv TOv karecÜuóvrow arép- para, TÓÀV yeopyóyv. 4 ^ ^ 4l. Téraprov JJ éaTi uépos TO TÓV TeXVvrQv- Ka TOUTOOV oL [L€V eiaw óTÀomotoí, o O€ TOLS yecpyots 7 Tw GÀAots Xpyousa ,mpos Ürrrpeatav KaTa- c KeváCovaw. obToL O ov uóvov aàTeAÀets etaw, aàÀÀAa kat avroperpiav ék ToU Baouukcob AnnBdvoUaL. / A ? IL éuzrrov àé 70 ? oTpaTtoTUcÓv, ets ToU$ 7rf0Àéuovs ? ^ ^^ M 7 / ? / X A eUÜerobv, gév mÀxÜeu OeUrepov, avéaev kai ^ ? ^ / TQ40LG TrÀeta TT) ypoojLevov év rats etpzvaus.. TpéQerat 9. ék ToU DaouAko0 ráv 70 mrÀfÜos rv arpaTtuTÓV ^ ^ 4 3 Kai TÓV TOoÀejugTÓV UmTOV T€ KQL éAedávrov. i4 » 5 A A —^ 5 7 ^ i Exrov 9ó' éort T0 TOV édópowv: o)roi O06 z0Àv- ^ A ^ zpaypovobüvres vávra Kat édopóvres à kara TTV , 4 5 / ^ ^ 3^4 o Ivóucrnv GmrayyeAAovat rois. PaciAcbaw, €àv TOÓÀLS a)DTÓV afactAevros 7) Tols Gpxovaw. "EB6ouov 9' éco [epos TO BovAebov nev kat guveopeDov Tois ÜTép TÓÀv kowdv DBovAevopnévois, 7 A 3 / b / A A / TÀYÜe. uév éAáyuaTov, eDyeveig 06 kat ópovyaet | jilorexvoóvres DB. D, Vogel: d«Aozovoóvres F, Dindorf, Bekker, diÀAocoóotvres A C.

? r0 added by Hertloin.

l| i.e. of the produce. 22

BOOK Il. 4o. 5-41. 4

to possess any ground; and apart from the rental they pay a fourth part! into the royal treasury.

The third division is that of the neatherds and shepherds, and, in general, of all the herdsmen who do not dwell in a "eit or village but spend their lives in tents; and these men are also hunters and rid the eountry of both birds and wild beasts. And sinee thev are praetised in this ealling and follow it with zest they are bringing India under cultiva- tion, although it still abounds in many wild beasts and birds of every kind, which eat up the seeds sown bv the farmers.

41. The fourth caste is that of the artisans; of these some are armourers and some fabrieate for the farmers or certain others the things useful for the services they perform. And they are not only exempt from paying taxes but they even receive rations from the roy al treasury.

The fifth easte is that of the military, which is