um UNE D ME

DIODORUS OF SICILY

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY C. H. OLDFATHER

PROFESSOR OF ANCIENI HISTORY AND LANGUAGES, TITE UNIVERSIIY OI NEBRASKA

IN TWELVE VOLUMES V

BOOKS AII 4l-riI

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MCML

Pnnted in Great Brilaan

CONTENTS

TEMPLE OF ZEUS AT ACRAGAS5 Front piece

PAGE BOOK AII (CHAPS. 41-84) 1 BOOK XIII : 117 A PARTIAL INDEXA OF PROPER NAMES 449 MAPS OP THE AREAS DESCRIBED IN VOL. V At end

l SIEGE OF SYRACUSE (FROM THUCYDIDES III, LC L)

2. SICILY AND GREECE (FROM DIODORUS III, LC.L)

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BOOK XII

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AIOAOPOT

TOT ZIKEAIOTOY

BIBAIOOHKHZ IZTOPIKHZ

BIBAOS AQAERATH

41. Ajria, pév ov Tob lleAozovvgoiako0 moAé- ^ / - [j "E » 7 pov Toi&Ürai rwes Umijp£av cs "Edoopos ávéypowe. -^ ^ M / E TOv Ó' Tyovuuévow móÀeov ToÜrov TÓv TpóTmov cis ^ / N ^ TóÀeuov éumecovaQv, AakeÓauóviou ey. uerà, TÓv IIeAozrovyqoiov | ovveÓpevoavres | élmdicavro | «o- Aepeiv Tots 'AÜnvatow, kai mpós cóv llepodv Baca mpeofeócavres mapekdAovv | ovupayety * ^ M M 1 b AL m) / QUTOls, kGL TOUS kara Tr» 2ukeAÀtav kat '"LlraA(av cvuxous Owwmpeopevodpevou Owakosts puó- La X ^ pecw émeway BonÜeiv, aórot uerà rv IleAomov- / N A /, ^e M » vncicv Tàs TeLtàs Ovvdueu Ovard£avres kal TÀÀÀa T& Tpós TÓv TÓAepov Tjrouiacpévow mpóroi To0 / ToAéuov kaT/pÉavro. karà yàp Tiv Bowwríav 7 rÀv llAaraiécw móMs a)róvopos fjv xol ovupa- L4 ^ xiav elye mpós 'AÜmvalous. év rasry TÓv moA- TV Twes karaA0cau T]v airovopiav BovAóuevoi

OeAéy0rcav Tots Bowwrots, émoyyeMpevoi TÜV 2

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41. Now the causes of the Peloponnesian War were a81sc in general what I have described, as Ephorus has recorded them. Ánd when the leading states had become embroiled 1n war in this fashion, the Lacedae- monians, sitting 1n council with the Peloponnesians, voted to make war upon the Athemians, and dis- patehing ambassadors to the lung of the Persians, urged him to ally himself with them, while they also treated by means of ambassadors with their alhes in Sicaly and Italy and peisuaded them to come to their aid with two hundred triremes ; and for their own pait they, together with the Peloponnesians, got ready their land forces, made all other preparations for the war, and were the first to commence the con- fiet. For in Boeotia the eity of the Plataeans was an independent state and had an alhance with the Athemans?! But certam of rts citizens, wishing to destroy its independence, had engaged in parleys with the Boeotians, promising that they would range

1 'The fuller account of the following 1ncident 15 in Thucy- dides, 2. 9 ff.

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zóÀw $zó T54v TOv OwBateov ráfew ovvréAetav kai mapaóocev a)rois ràs llAaraudás, éàv abroi oTrpurwoTas méjuloo: ro)s BonÜo)üvras ^ O0 xai TÓv DBowrüv dwooreÀÁvrcow oTparw Tas émi- Aékrous Tpiakogious vuKTÓS, ot vpoOóTQL TOUTOUS mapewayayóvreg évrós TÓÀ TewÓv kvpious Tíjs móÀews émoígcav. o6 06 lIAaracveis BovAópevot 7v "pós 'AÜnvaíovs cvpsayiav. OuujvAArTew, TO uév mpéyrov vmoAaflóvres mravónuei roos QBaiovs vap- eivai, Ovwmpeoevoavro mpós To)s kareUmóóras Tjv mÓÀw kai mapekdAovv ovvÜécÜau omovóds: cs 9' 5 vof mapfjAÜe, karavowccavres oÀtyovs Ovras, cwvearpddmoav kai mepi Tí]; éAevÜepias ékÜUpcos Tycevibovro. yevopévgs Ts pdáxygs év «vais óO00is, TO uév mpüTov ot COmwfato: àià ràs üperàs mpoetyov kai moAÀÀoUs rÀv àvÜiorauévov üvjpovv: TÀv Ó' oikerdv kai rÓv maiócv àró TÓv ouv BaAAóvrow Tàs kepopióas kai karurvTpookÓvTcV ToUs Owaiovs érpázQcav: kai Twés pév aDrÓv ékmegóvres ék Tís mÓÀewos Oico0Ü0m50av, mwés eis oik(av twà KaradQvyóvres Tjvaykáo0oav mapa- Ootvau. cds a)roUs. ot OnBatoi vapà Tv ék rfje MAxs 9.aocévrev vrvÜOuevow cvufleBukóra, Tüpaxpíjua TravOnei Korà oovónv cOpyumqoav. 0. 06 TO sapáOofov àveroiuaowv Óvrcv TÓv karà TTv xopav, moÀAol uév. àvppé8noav, o)x OAiyou 8€ bGvres ovveX)Ünoav, dmaca 9' 7) xópa. rapayfis kai Ovaprayfjs éyepev.

49. Ot llÀarowe(s 8vampeofevodpevot pos roUs Onaiovs T£lovv àreAMetv ék ríjs yepas adràv kai GmoAafétv Toós aiyuaMoTovs. Oi0 kai fs

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BOOK XII. 41. 3—42. 1

that state under the confederacy ! organized by the i31zc Thebans and hand Plataea over to them if they would send soldiers to aid in the undertaking. Conse- quently, when the Boeotians dispatched by night three hundred picked soldiers, the tra:itors got them inside the walls and made them masters of the city. The Plataeans, wishing to maintain their alliance with the Athenians, since at first they assumed that the Thebans were present in full force, began negotia- tions with the captors of the city and urged them to agree to à truce ; but as the night wore on and they perceived that the Thebans were few in number, they rallied en masse and began putting up a vigorous struggle for their freedom. The fighting took place in the streets, and at first the Thebans held the upper hand because of their valour and were slaying many of their opponents ; but when the slaves and children began pelting the Thebans wath tiles from the houses and wounding them, they turned in fhght ; and some of them escaped from the city to safety, but some who found refuge in a house were forced to give themselves up. When the Thebans learned the out- come of the attempt from the survivors of the battle, they at once marched forth in all haste 1n full force. And since the Plataeans who dwelt im the rural districts were unprepared because they were not expecting the attack, many of them were slam and not a small number were taken captive alive, and the whole land was filled with tumult and plundering 42. The Plataeans dispatched ambassadors to the Thebans demanding that they leave Plataean territory and receive their own captives back. And so, when ! (The Boeotian League, which had been revived after

Athens lost ber dominating position in Cential Greece in the battle of Coroneia in 447 s.c. (cp. chap. 6)

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/ Pd / M (3 B ^ cwVÜécens ma/r)s yeyevnpérys ot pev Cato A A 100g aiypaAcTous dmoAaDóvres kai TT5v Àeiav 5 / e N dmo8Oóvres eig ràs €hjBas damyMdygcav: oi Oe z » / DIAarauets vpós uév 'AOmvaiovs émejav mpéopew ^ * / b TepL BomÜeías, aóroi mÀetora ékOpucav ets ^ M A i T)v mÓÀw ot 'AOqvato, vrvÜÓjevor rà. epi ras ^ e i IlAarauids, vapaypfua é£émejav To)s (kavous T b , orparuDTas: obrou Óé korà ocwovópv mapayevó- ? M M ievot, kai wu!) dÜácavres roos OvBatovs, Aovrá ^ -^ 5 N / rÀv dm xcpas karekópuoav eis Ty! mÓÀw, ^ 3 » L kal Tékva kai yvvaikas kai TOv OyAov àÜpoicavres ? / 5 i ? / éfaméoreiAav eis ràg. '" AOrvas. 86 AakeBauuó j AeAoÜau t Ge AakeGouuóvio, kpivavres karaAeAvoÜau Tàs ovovOàs no TÀv 'AÜwnvatcv, Bóvapuv QG£ióAoyov 70powav éx Te Tfj; AakeOat(uovos kai sapà TÓV »y / / M / 1 GdAÀcv IleAomovvgoiov ^ cvveuáyovv 06 TÓT€ Aa- / / A "d M » keüo4uoviots IleAomrovvijowot uév. srávres mv ' Ap- yeiov: oOrow 0 Tfovxiav etyov TÓV O éxTOs TÍjs ILeAorovvrjoov Meyapets, ' AuBpakw rat, Aevkáótot, Oukeis, Bouorot, Aokpoi 7Àv uév vmpós E)Boww ? / H ^ ? M ? ^ éoTrpap.évcov ot srAetovs, rv à. àÀÀov '" Audiccets. rote O' 'AOmvaiows cvveuáyovv oi TÀ)v vapáAÀwvv Tfs '"Ácias oikotvres Küpes kat Acpiwets kat "To- ves ka, '"EAMomóvriow kai vgourat mávres mv ^ / ràv év MxÀo xai Og koroucosvrcv, Opuoics 9€ M e 92 / M / M «aL oi émi Opdkugs mÀpv XaXa8éov xai Ilomi- OauuTÀv: mpós ToUro:w MeoowWwioi puév ot cv Z ^ ^ Nawmakrov oikofvres kai Kepkupato! ^ ToUT(COv

1 rore] rois Wurm.

! "Thucydides (2. 5. 7) saysthat the Plataeans persuaded the Thebans to withdraw from their territory and that they then slew the Theban captives.

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BOOK XII. 42. 1—5

this had been agreed upon, the Thebans received 151 ».. their eaptives back, restored the booty they had taken, and returned to Thebes. 'lhe Plataeans dis- patched ambassadors to the Athenians asking for aid, while they themselves gathered the larger part of their possessions into the city. The Athemans, when they learned of what had taken place in Plataea, at once sent a considerable body of soldiers ; these arnved in haste, although not before the "Thebans, and gathered the 1iest of the property from the countryside into the city, and then, collecting both the children and women and the rabble,? sent them off to Athens.

The Lacedaemonians, deciding that the Athenians had broken the truce,? mustered a strong army from both Lacedaemon and the rest of the Peloponnesians The alhes of the Lacedaemonians at thus time were al the inhabitants of the Peloponnesus with the exception. of the Argives, who remamed neutral; and of the peoples outside of the Peloponnesus the Meganians, Ambraciotes, Leucadians, Phocians, Boeotians, and of the Locrians,* the majority of those facing Euboea, and the Amplussians of the rest. The Athenians had as alhes the peoples of the coast of Asiaà, namely, the Canans, Dorians, lonians, and Hellespontines, also all the islanders except the inhabitants of Méelos and Thera, hkewise the dwellers in Thrace except the Chaleidians and Potidaeans,. furthermore ihe Messenians who dwelt m Naupactus and the Cereyraeans | Of these, the Chuans, Lesbians,

? ''hucydides (2. 6 4) calls these ** the least efficient of the men."

3 'he thirty-yeati tiuce concluded in 446 5 c. (chap. 7).

* ''hose facing Euboea were the Opuntian Locrians, those on the Corinthian Gulf the Ozohan.

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! rojrov | . . Kepkvpato,. added by Wessehng from Thuc. 2::9:.5

? So the MSS.; moAeuéows Hermann, followed by Wurm, Dindorf, Bekker, Vogel.

* "There 1s a lacuna 1n the Greek ; the prececung words of the sentence are taken from Thucydides, 2 9. 9. 5.

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BOOK XII. 42. 5-8

and Cercyraeans furnished ships,! and all the rest sup- i31 sc plied infantry. The alhes, then, on both sides were as we have listed them

After the Lacedaemonians had prepared for service a strong army, they placed the command in the hands of Archidamus ther lang. He invaded Atüea with his army, made repeated assaults upon its fortified places, and 1avaged a large part of the countryside And when the Athenians, being incensed because of the raiding of their countryside, wished to offer battle to the enemy, Pericles, who was a general * and held in his hands the entire leadership of the state, urged the young men to make no move, promang that he would expel the Lacedaemonians from Attica without the peni of battle. Whereupon, fitung out one hundred triremes and putting on them a strong force of men, he appointed Carcinus general over them together with certain others and sent them against the Peloponnesus. This force, by ravaging a large extent of the Peloponnesian terntory along the sea and capiuring some fortresses, struck terror into the Lacedaemonians ; consequently they speedily re- called their army from Attica and thus provided a large measure of safety to the Peloponnesians.? In this manner Áthens was dehvered from the enemy, and Pencles received approbation among hi. fellow

? 'The ten geneials were the most important Athenan magistrates of this period, and Pericles, elected every y ear as one of the ten, acted as their president.

3 Many editors (see critical note) read " enemy " for * Peloponnesians," thereby malang the AÁthenians the ones who were made safe. But there 1s no reason to emend the text. The fleet dispatched by Pericles was ravaging the terri- tory of many of Sparta's Peloponnesan alhes; cp. the following chapter, and Thucydides, 9 25, 30.

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! The eastern coast between Argolis and Laconia * The single able general the Peloponnesians produced in

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BOOK XII 43. 8—43. 4

citizens as having the ability to perform the duties of 421 5c. a general and to fight 1t out with. the. Lacedaemo- nians.

48. When Apollodorus was archon 1n Athens, the 4:0c Romans elected as consuls Marcus Geganius and Lucius Sergius. During thus year the general of the Athenians never ceased plundering and harrying the territory of the Peloponnesians and laying siege to their fortresses ; and when there were added to his command fifty triremes from Cercyra, he ravaged all the more the territory of the Peloponnesians, and in particular he laid waste the part of the coast which 1s called Acté ! and sent up the farm-buildimgs in flames After this, sailing to Methoné in Laconia, he both ravaged the countryside and made repeated assaults upon the city There Brasidas? the Spartan, who was still à youth in years but already distinguished for his strength and courage, seeing that Methoné was in danger of capture by assault, took some Spartans, and boldly breakimg through the hostile forces, which were scattered, he slew many of them and got mto the stronghold. In the siege which followed Brasdas fought so brilhantly that the Athenians found themselves unable to take the strong- hold and withdrew to their ships, and Bragidas, who had saved Methoné by his imdividual bravery and valour, received the approbation ofthe Spartans And because of this hardihood of his, Braadas, having become mnordinately proud, on many subsequent occasions fought recklessly and won fo: himself a great reputation for valour. nd the Athemnans, sading around to Ehs, ravaged the countryside and

this ten-year war. For his further career see below, chaps. 62, 617-68, T1 11

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* 8o Palmer, fiom Thuc. 9. 95 3- depà» P, deptav v. 12

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BOOK XII. 43. 4—44 3

laid siege to Pheia, a stronghold of the Eleians. The i30 5c Eleians who came out to 1ts defence they defeated

in battle, slaying many of their opponents, and took Pheia by storm. But after this, when the Ele1ians

en masse offered them battle, the Athenians were driven back to their ships, whereupon they sailed off

to Cephallenia, where they brought the inhabitants

of that island into their alhance, and then voyaged back to Athens.

44. After these events the Athenians chose Cleo- pompus general and sent him to sea with thuty ships under orders both to keep careful guard over Euboea and to make war upon the Locrians. He, sailing forth, ravaged the coast of Locris and reduced by siege the city of Thronium, and the Loerians who opposed him he met in battle and defeated near the city of Alopé.! Following this he made the island known as Atalanté, wlueh hes off Locris, into a fortress on the border of Loens for his operations against the inhabitants of that country Also the Athemans, accusmg the Aeginetans of having collaborated with the Lacedae- monians, expelled them from their state, and sending colonists there from their own citizens they portioned out to them in allotments both the city of Aegina and its terutory To the Aeginetan refugees the Lacedaemonmans gave Thyreae,? as it 1s called, to dwell in, because the Athemans had also once given Naupactus as a home for the people whom they had dnven out of Messené? "The Athenians also dis- patched Pericles with an army to make war upon the Meganans He plundered them territory, laid

1 Thronium and Alopé are m Opuntian Locris facing the northern tip of Euboea.

? In northern Laconia near the borde1 of Argolis 3 Cp. Book 11. 84. 7.

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^ / M ^ kai ràs krYjoew; abTÀv AÀvwwQváuevos perà moAMfs ^ 5 A E] 7 - dóeAeias émavijM9ev eis vàs ' AOrjvas / V 45 Aake8auuóvtot 06. jer lleÀosovvijotcov. iot ^ b M » M N rÀv dÀAcv cvuqiáycv évéBaAov eis cv ' Arrucrv 70 M M / hi GeUrepov. émwmopevó|.evou O6 c?v xopav éóevópo- A ^ Tóuovv xal ràs éma/Aew évem)pilov, kai mcav ^ ^ / oye8óv Tv yfjv éAvjijvavro mÀjv Tíjs kaÀovuévuos » M N M TerpamóAecs ra)r9gs 9' améoyovro Óià TO TOUS ^ ^ / M N "poyóvovus a)rÀv évraüÜa kuarqknkévas kai TOV / M Lj M ) 2 Eipvo0éa vewQkévas Tf» Opp é« ra)T)Ss m0w- e ^ ^ 5 7 caj.évovus Bíkauov yàp TyyoÜvro Tots eUQpyernkóot ^ 5 M] / TOUS Tpo'yóvovs Tapà TOV éKyÓvov Tàs Tppoo"koU- b / ? / o 'AO0 ^ cas eUepyecías amoÀapDávew —— ol (vato. b vapardfaoÜa. uév oUk éróAuov, cvveyópevow 9 ^ Le M évrós TÓv Tejwudv évémeoov «ig Aowukmv mepí- oracw: TOoÀÀo80 yàp AcÜovs kai mavrooaro0 cuveppvmkóros eis TT)v mÓAuv Óià TTv oTevoxcpíav e0AÓycs eis vóoovs évémwmTOv, éÀkovres dépa Qi- 2 edÜapuévov. GOimwep o) Ovvduevou rods moÀeutovs » ^ ? ^ L4 4 ^ A 3667 ékfaAetv ék Tíjs yepas, m&Àw vaüs moAÀàs ééé- / vejrrov eis TeAomróvvqoov ovparryóv éniorrjcavres IleokAéa. | oóros soÀMjv xopav TÍís mapa- ÜnÀarriov On«oocos kat mas mÓAes mopÜ(cas, Hi / 3 ^ 5 ^ $ ^ M émoioev àmeAÜetv éx cífjs 'Acvrwukfis vro)s Aake- ^ ^ ^ Oauuoviovs. uerà O06 TaU0' oi 'AÜmvato: cf uév Xcpas Oe8evOpokommévns Tíjs O6 vócov «oAÀoUs ! U Foui-city " This was the north-eastein part of Attica containing the four demes of Marathon, Oenoe, Priobalinthus, and Tricorythus, forming an administrative unit. ? 'The Athenians had been the only people of Greece to

offer a home to the Heracleidae, 1n 'Tricorythus of the Tetra- polis; ep. Book 4. 57.

14

e

BOOK XII. 44. 3—45. 4

waste their possessions, and returned to Athens with 180 x.c. much booty

15. The Lacedaemonians together with the Pelo- ponnesians and their other alhes invaded Attica for a second time. In their advance through the country they chopped down orchards and burned the farm- buildings, and they laid waste almost the entire land with the exception of the region known as the Tetrapolis* This area they spared because their ancestors had once dwelt there and had gone forth from 1t as their base on the occasion when they had defeated Eurystheus; for they congidered it only fair that the benefactors of their ancestors should in turn receive from their descendants the corresponding benefactions. As for the Athemans, they could not venture to meet them in a pitched battle, and being confined as they were within the walls, found them- selves involved in an emergency caused by a plague ; for since a vast multitude of people of every desenp- tion had streamed together into the city, there was good reason for their falling victim to diseases as they did, because of the cramped quarters, breathing air which had become polluted.? Consequently, since they were unable to expel the enemy from their territory, they again dispatched many ships against the Peloponnesus, appointing Pencles general. He ravaged a large part of the territory borderimng on the sea, plundered some cities, and brought 1t about that the Lacedaemonmans withdrew from Attica. After this the Athenians, now that the trees of their country- side had been cut down and the plague was carrying

? "The detailed desciiption of this plague, whose symptoms resemble more those of typhus than of any other disease, 1s in Thucydides, 9 47 ff.

. 15

DIODORUS OF SICILY

8.aÜe.posons, év a8 vp. kaBevorikecay, «ai TÓV ILepucAéa vop.izovres airiov aUrots yeyovévai TOU mroAépov Ov Opyfjs ,elxov. Diórrep door cavres ajrÓv Tfs oTpaTQoylas kai pAKpds Twas aóoppas éykAqudmeov Aafióvres, ebnpieoay aDTÓV oor jkov- ra rüÀávroiw. perà. 66 ravra mpeopeias Gmooreí- Aavres AaieDaupiovious j&touv karaAvoacÜ0a. TÓV TÓÀepov' cs om oU0eis a)Troís mpooetxev, Tvaykdá- Lovro máAu róv llepucAéa orparmyóv aipetaaa.

Taóra uév ov émpáyÜn xarà ToÜrov TÓv é£w- avTÓV.

46. 'Emr Gpxovros o A8fvnaw " Exrapetvovos! Popaío: KaüTéoTqcav UmáTovus Aeóiov IHamipwov kai ÀóAov KopvijÀvov Makeptvov. | ézi 06 roUTwv dv uev rais '"AÜvvaus IlepwAfjs 0 ovpoarmqyós ércAed- TnOev, àv?p yévew kai TÀoUvrq, mpós ToUrois ewóT)T0 Àóyov kal ovrpaTm«ylq. TroÀD v poéyov TÓV mOÀVTÓV.

'O 8e 8fuos QuioruioUpevos. Kürà Kpdros &Aeiv TÜV Hori8atav, e&améareiey Ayvava OTpaTwyóv EXovra. TV Bóvaqu» Üv mpórepov exe. ILepwAMs. obros O6 nerà mavrÓs Tob oTóAov karazrAeócas eis Tv Horíóatav rrapeokeváaaTo TOS TV mOALopk(av* wryavás T€ yàp mavrobamás TOGpegkeU- ace moAwopiryrucas Ka Omcov kai BeAàv vÀfjfos, éru 06 aírov DastAeiay ICA YT] mráon Tjj Owvápeet. "pocBoÀàs moio)pevos ovveyeis kaÜ' ékáorwv

* So Palmer: "Ezapwovàov

* Thucydides (2. 65. 3) mentions only ^ à fine" ; Plutarch (Perles. 35) states that estimates of the fine Sanc from fifteen to fifty talents ; according to Plato (Gorg. 516 4) the charge was embezzlement. The schoha on Aristophanes,

16

-

BOOK XII. 45. 4—46. 2

off great numbers, were plunged into despondency 480 »c. and became angry with Pencles, considering him to have been responsible for the: bemg at war. Con- sequently they removed him from the generalship, and on the strength of some petty grounds for accusa- tion they imposed a fine upon him of eighty talents ! After this they dispatched embassies to the Lacedae- monians and asked that the war be brought to an end ; but when not a man paid any attention to them, they were forced to elect Pencles general again.

These, then, were the events of this year.

46 When Epameinon was archon in Athens, the 429 c. Romans elected as consuls Lucius Papius and Aulus Cornehus Macennus. Thi year in. Athens Pencles the general died, à man who not only in birth and wealth, but also 1n eloquence and skill as a. general, far surpassed his fellow citizens

Since the people of Athens desired for the glory of it to take Potidaea by storm,?* they sent Hagnon there as general with the army which Pericles had formerly commanded. He put m at Potidaea with the whole expedition and made all his preparations for the siege ; for he had made ready every kind of engine used in sieges, a multitude of arms and missiles, and an abundance of grain, sufficient for the entire army Hagnon spent much ime making continuous assaults

Clouds, 859, explam that Pericles entered 1n. his. accounts an expenditure eig ÓBéovra (" for necessary purposes "), which the Lacedaemonians interpieted as being for bribes and accordingly punished some of then leading men. Also mentioned is the charge that the gold on Athena's statue was not of the weight charged , but Phexdlias removed and weighed it, disproving the allegation.

? An Athenian arniy had been before the city for four years ; Cp. chap. 34.

17

Ct

DIODORUS OF SICILY

fjpiépav Ouérpube mroAàv xpóvov, o) Ovvájievos cAetv TOV mÓÀw. oi pév yàp mroAvopkovpuevoi Oi TOv éx Tfjs dÀccecs dópov éppcopévcos T)vovro kai rais brepoxoís TÓV TeUxÓv memoiióres érAeovékTovv ToUs ek ToU Auévos* ul 9€ vócos TOUS roAwopkobvras cvvéyovaa ToAo)s ávijpei, KQi arparrómebov a8vjta koreétyev. ó O Arva ei9cs ToUs '"AÜm- vaious Oe0amavmkóras eis viv TOoÀopkiav TrÀelco TÓY yAÀUcov TOÀvTOV Ka xoAemrás Óuuceuuévovs mrpos TroUs lloriGaudras 0i TO vpovrovs &roorfvai mpos ro)s Aake8auuovtovs, édoBetro Aca TTv TroAi- opkiav: Olóvzep TvaykdáLero DLacaprrepety KQL TOUS eTporudyras GyaykáLew. T0 Ovapuv pav mpoc- áyew Tjj TÓAe. enel 06 TÓÀv mroAvrv mroAAol OuedÜcipovro KO/TG. Ts mpooBoAás kai karà cmv eK Tob Aou408 vócov, GaroÀvrov pépos Tfjs Dvvápecos émi TÍs moAtopktas &TémAevoev eis ràs 'AOWvas, àzoBeBAniecs rv OTpOTLoT Àv mÀetous TOV XtMcov. àmeAÜóvrev O6 ToUrov oi llorióaára, ToU Te oírov TvreÀOs ékAumóvros KQi TÓV karà TÜV z'ÓÀww aÜvpotvrev, emerrpukeóoavro pos ToUs T0- Avopkofvras zepi OuuÀjoewcs. Qouéves O6 xàkei- v«v trpooóe£auévcov 9vaAUoeu érovjcavro rouras, dmeAÜetv ék -íás mÓÀews A&mavras ros llomoi- dras, GÀÀo uév wnÜcv Aapóvras, €yovras 8€ coUs Mev vópas iudriov €v, Tüs 0€ yvvoikas OUO. ye- vol.évoov TOUTOV TÓV OTOvÓOV oi pév. IoriGa- Gra mrávTes ner, yvvawüv kai TÉiVaY é£éAurov TV varpiàa, cor Tàs cvvÜXkas, kai TrapeADóv- Tes eis TroUs émi Opdkms XaoÀkióeis map! ajrots | So the MSS. ; émAeovékrow, 5j 9' àk ToÜ AMowuoÜ vócos Vogel. 18 .

BOOK XII 46 2—7

cvery day, but without the power to take the city. 429 ».c. l'or on the one side the besiegcd, spurred on by the fear of capture, were putüng up a sturdy resistance and, confiding 1n the supenor height of the walls, held the advantage over the Athemans attacking from the harbour, whereas the besegers were dying in large numbers from the plague and despondency prevaied throughout the army Hagnon, knowing that the Athenians had spent more than a thousand talents on the sege and were angry with the Potidaeans because they were the fivst to go over to the Lacedaemonians, was afraid to rame the siege; consequently he felt compelled to continue 1t and to compel the soldiers, beyond their strength, to force the issue against the city. But since many Athenian cibzens were being slam in the assaults and by the ravages of the plague, he left à part of his army to maintain the siege and sailed back to Athens, having lost more than a thousand of his soldiers. After Hagnon had withdrawn, the Potidaeans, since ther grain supply was entirely exhausted and the people i the city were disheartened, sent heralds to the besiegers to discuss terms of capitulation. These were received eagerly and an agreement to cessation of hostihties was reached on the following teums. All the Potidaeans should depart from the city, talang nothing with them, with the exception that men could have one garment and women two. When this truce had been agreed upon, all the Potidaeans together with ther wives and children left ther native land in accordance with the terms of the com- pact and went to the Chalaidians in Thrace among

19

DIODORUS OF SICILY

karQkrgav: 0. "A0qvato Tv voÀwr|üv eig Xt- Acovs oiKT)jropas e&emepabay eis Trv lLorióosav, kai Tv T€ TÓÀw kai viv ycpav karekAnpoUymoav.

4T. "AÓnvaiot 0€ CD'oppitcova. OTpaTTyOv Trpoxet- puoápevoi pier elcoot TpUpcv e&oméoreiAav. oOTOS 0€ mepurAevoas TTV ILeAomóvvjoov eis Nasmrakrov «arífpe, kai ÜaÀarrokporóv ToU Kpwcaiou kóAmov Ovekc)Àvae raíry) TÀetv Tos akeOotuovtovs. Aa- kebauLóVioL or Osvapuv dGióAoyov é£émrejujav per "Apyibdpov Tob BaoiAéms oDros O6 mapeAÜow fis Bovwrias eis IIAarauàs éorparozéOecvoe. | ueAAóv- TOV Ó. ü)rGv 05o0v Tv xcopav kai rapakaAo)vrav roos llÀAaraweis dmooT$voaw rÀv '"AÜnvaiwv, cs o) er pocetyov avrots, érrópÜnoe T')v yopav kai ràs kam. a)rTv kT?cews éAvpvaro. perà 0€ rabTO TT TÓó- Aw mepvreuxicas Tribe Tjj ovrávew TOv. àvavykalav karaTovijcew Tro)s llÀaraue(s: od0ev O' Tjrrov kai pQxovàs mpooáyovres kai Oià mroUrcv oaÀeUovres Teiy9 kai mpooDoÀàs dóiaAeirTwS TowoULLevol OveréAovv. | émei Oe oU0€ Oud TÓV mpoaBoÀàv zjosvavro xeupocacÜa, 79v nó, dToAvmÓvres Tv ikaviv dvAa«)v érravíjABov «is I eAomóvvqaov.

Afnvaioi O6 orpaTwyo)s karaorijoavres Mevo- óvra KQ Oavópaxov &méoreiav émi Opdkmv perd, oTporuuTóv yiAeov. o9ro,. mro paryeym- Üévres eis Enáproov" Tfs Borrukfs éreuov Tv xopav kai vOv otrov év yAóg OuéÜewav. mpooc-

* So Dindorf: Podpereude ? So Palmer (Thuc. 2. 79. 2) : IIákroAov.

! At about the centre of the north side of the Gulf of Corinth

20

BOOK XII. 46. 7—47 3

whom they made ther home; and the Athenians 420 s.c. sent out as many as a thousand of their citizens to Potidaea as colonists and portioned. out to them in allotments both the city and its territory.

47. The Athenians elected Phormio general and sent him to sea with twenty turemes. He sailed around the Peloponnesus and put in at Naupactus, and by gainng the mastery of the Crisaean Gulf! prevented the Lacedaemonians? from sailing 1n those parts | Ánd the Lacedaemonmans sent out a strong army under Archidamus their king, who marched into Boeotia and took up positions before Plataea. Under the threat of ravaging the territory of the Plataeans he called upon them to revolt fiom the Athenians, and when they paid no attention to him, he plundered their territory and laid waste their possessions everywhere. After this he threw a wall about the city, mn the hope that he could force the Plataeans to capitulate because of lack of the neces- sities of life ; at the same time the Lacedaemonians continued bringing up engines with. which they kept shattering the walls and makmg assaults without interruption. But when they found themselves un- able to take the city through their assaults, they left an adequate guard before it and returned to the Peloponnesus.

The Athenans appointed Xenophon and Phano- machus generals and sent them to Thrace with a thousand soldiers. When this force arrived at Spartolus ? 1n the territory of Bottcé, 1t lad waste the land and cut the grain in the first growth. But

? Specifically the Corinthians, the leading naval alhes of the Lacedaemonians. 3 In the Thracian Chalcidicé near Olynthus

21

ca

DIODORUS OF SICILY

^ 7 ? d e "4 BoxÜncdvrov 96 rots Borriatow 'OAvvÜLov, 1yrri- / » / N -^ Óncav )mó roórov puáxym: àvgpéÜncav O6 TÓv 'AOqvaiov ot re orpaTwyoi kai TÀV OTpaTwTÓV t 7 mÀetovus. dpa 06 roDrow mporrouévow Aake- ? ^ E / Oawuóvio, TewÜévres omo "AufparwrrGv éorpá- M / Tevcav eig 'Akapvavíav | TwyoULevos ToUTov ^ 7 7 A ^ Kv$uos eye ovparwras melLoUs xyuiÀovs kai vaüs ^^ / oAbyas: mpocÀapópevos 96 kat srapà, 7v cvuudycv T 5 7 oTrparuoTOas TOUS (KavoUs 7kev eis T7]jv "Akapvaviav / ^ ? KQi kareaTparoméOeuce mÀmoiov móAÀecs Tís Óvo- ^ paLouévms I£párov | oi 06 'AÁkapvüves ovorpa- dévres kai rois mwoAejois éveOpeUcavres voÀAoUs dékrewav, kat ovvyváykacay róv Kvfuov ázaya- yetv v7)v OUvapuv eis Tos óvouatouévous Otvidóas. A x X 5 b / 4 e 48. llep( ro)s a)Dvovs xpóvovs QGoputov Oo ^ , / TÀv 'AÜnvaíov orpaTqyós éyov etkocu TpW/peis mepiéruye vavoi AakeÓauuoviov émrà «pos Tois TeTTQpákovra. vovuayncas spós Tra/vTras TV T€ oTpaTrWyióa vaüv TOv mvoÀenicov karéOvoe kai TÀV dÀÀwv ToAÀÀAs ümÀovs émoinoe, O9c0exa 86 a)rávÓpovs «etÀe, ràs O06 Aowrás péypu Tfjs yis oL M A à / ? 2A 7 KareOio£ev. ot 06 Aakeóauuóvio. map! éXmiGas / ^ / A » , 1TTQ1Üévres vais vjmoAewjÜeionus vavoiv éQvyov cis llárpas Tfs 'Axaias. abr5 pév ov v) vavnayita / N M "PL / e 5 cvvéoro Tepi TO 'Piov xaAoUuevov. oi 9' 'AQm- votou rpóTOLOv oT)0aVTes kai TQ llooeiBw Trepi 1 M ^ TOv TropÜpov' vatv xaÜiepeocavres dmémAevoav eis

1 mepi] TO epi Wurm. ? So Palmer: ioüuóv

1 In southern Acarnania. Dd

BOOK XII. 47. 3—48. 1

the Olynthians came to the aid of the Bottiaeans and 420 sc defeated them in battle; and there were slain of the Athenians both the generals and thc larger part of the soldiers. And whie this was taking place, the Lacedaemonians, yielding to the request of the Ambraciotes, made a campaign against Acarnania. The leader was Cnemus and he had a thousand foot- soldiers and a few ships. To these he added a con- siderable number of soldiers from their alhes and entered Acarnama, pitching his camp near the city known as Stratus. Dut the Acarnamans gathered their forces and, laying an ambush, slew many of the enemy, and they forced Cnemus to withdraw his army to the city called Oeniadae :

48. During the same time Phormio, the Athenian general, with twenty tru emes fell in with forty-seven Lacedaemoman warships. And engaging them in battle he sank the flag-ship of the enemy and put many of the rest of the ships out of action, capturing twelve together with their crews and pursuing the remaining as far as the land.? The Lacedaemonians, after having suffered defeat contrary to their expecta- tions, fled for safety with the ships which were left them to Patrae in Achaea This sea battle took place off Rhium,? as it is called. The Athenians set up à trophy, dedicated a ship to Poseidon at the strait,* and then sailed off to the city of Naupactus, which

* Phoimio's famous manoeuvring 1n this battle 15 described in Thucydides, 2. 83-84.

3 A cape at the entrance of the Corinthian Gulf.

* 'The Greek, wluch reads '*at the Isthmus," must be defective, for Thucydides' (2. 84. 4) account makes 1t ceitain that the ship was dedicated near the scene of the battle; the emendation of Wurm (see cemibcal note) would have the dedication made '' to Poseidon the patron god of the Isthmus."

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DIODORUS OF SICILY

2 qóÀw cvuuayióa Navwaxrov | AakeOauuoviot 9 érépas vaüs éfémepav eis vàs llaàrpas. aora 86 mpoocAa[lóueva. Tàs €x Tíjs vavpaxtas repi- AeAeuupévas Tpwjpew "ÜpotoÜnoav eis TO 'Piov eis rTÓv a)róv rÓmov kai vre£Ov oTpaTÓmeOov rüv lleAomovvgoicwv karw.vrQoe kat mzÀQjoiov ToU

3 orÓÀov kareorparoméOevoe. (Dopuiv Tfj mpo- yeyevnuévm viky $povguarwÜeis éróMugoev ém- 0caÜa. rais vroAeuíous vavoiv ovoaus roAAamAao(aus: «ai rwas aüTÓÀv karaóUcas kai TrÓv L(Oicv dro- BaAov àápuóüofov éoye rjv vikqv uerà. 96 rara ' Aünvatcv àrooreiAávrov. eikoou Tpvjpeu, ot a- «eOauuóviot doDrÜévres &ümérAevoav eis v)jv Kópw- Üov, o9 ToÀuGvres vavpaxetv.

Tabra uév o)v émpáxyOn karà coÜrov TÓv éw- aUTÓv.

49. 'Ec' &pyovros O9 ' 'AO5wv«o( Awor(uov 'Po- poio. pév omárovs karéoTrqcav duov 'losAwv xa, lloókAov Oepyüuov 'Tpikoorov, 'HAeto. 9'

Tyayov "OÀvumiáóa. óy8óqv mpós rais OyOor/kovra, kaÜ' Tv évika oráówv 2uuaxos MecoowWwwos dmó

9 EukeMas. émi 06 rovrov Kvfüuos O rÀv Maxe- GauLovicv vavapyos €v Tfj KopüÜc Bwrpifcv ékpwyye TOv llewod& koaraAaféoÜa,. ^ érvvÜdvero yàp ww/re vabs év avrÀ kaÜeukvouévas Drápyew Myre orparuwDTas eivau. reraypévous émi Ts duv- Aakfjs: ro0s yàp 'AÜmvaiovs àueAOs éyew epi Tfs ToUrov dQvÀakfs Ou TO pma9auós éXniLeaw

3 roÀuífjoat rwas karaAaBéoÜa. rÓv TÓwov. Oiómep év rots Meyápow kaÜeA«)cas ràs veveoAknuévas rerrapákovra Tpvjpews vukTOs émÀevoev eis cTv ZaÀauiva: mpoomecov O' àmpooOokvyrcs cis 24.

BOOK XII. 48. 2—49 3

was intheiralhance. The Lacedaemonians sent other 429 s c. ships to Patrae These ships Joined to themselves the triremes which had survived the battle and assembled at Rhium, and also the land force of the Peloponnesians met them at the same place and pitched camp near the fleet And Phormio, having become puffed up with pride over the victory he had just won, had the daring to attack the ships of the enemy, although they far outnumbered his!; and some of them he sank, though losing ships of his own, so that the victory he won was equivocal. After this, when the Athenians had dispatched twenty triremes,? the Lacedaemonians sailed off in fear to Corinth, not daring to offer battle

These, then, were the events of this year.

40. When LDuotumus was archon in Athens, the 428 s.c. Romans elected as consuls Gaius Juhus and Proculus Vergimus Tricostus, and the Eleians celebrated the Eighty-eighth Olympiad, that 1n. which Symmachus of Messené in Sicily won the "stadion" In thus year Cnemus, the Lacedaemoman admural, who was active in Corinth, deeaded to seize the Pexaeus. He had received imformation that no ships in the harbour had been put into the water for duty and no soldiers had been detailed to guard the port; for the Athenians, as he learned, had become negligent about guarding it because they by no means expected any enemy would have the audacity to seize the plaee. Consequently Cnemus, launching forty tri- remes which had been hauled up on the beach at Megara, sadled by mght to Salamis, and falhng

* "Thucydides (2. 86. 4) states that there were seventy-seven ships against Phormio's twenty. ? 'These were 1einforcements from Athens.

25

Cit

DIODORUS OF SICILY

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! Used to block the entrance; cp. Book 18. 64. 4. 26

BOOK XII. 49. 3——50. 2

unexpectedly on the fortress on Salamis called 48 Boudorium, he towed away thiee ships and overran ihe entre island. When the Salamimans signalled by beacon-fires to the inhabitants of Atüca, the Áthenians, ihmlang that the Peraeus had been seized, quickly rushed forth in great confusion to its suecour; but when they learned what had taken place, they quickly manned a considerable number of warships and saded to Salamis The Pelopon- nesians, having been disappointed in their main design, sailed away from Salamis and returned home. And the Athenians, after the retreat of the enemy, in the case of Salamis gave 1t à more vigilant guard and left on it à considerable garrison, and the Peiraeus they strengthened here and there with booms * and adequate gua1ds.

50. In the same period Sitalces, the king of the Thracians, had succeeded to the kingship of a small land mmdeed but nonetheless by his personal courage and wisdom he greatly increased his domuinion, equitably governing his subjects, playing the part of à brave soldier in battle and of a skilful general, and furthermore giving close attention to his revenues. In the end he attained to such power that he ruled over more extensive territory than had any who had preceded him on the throne of Thrace. For the coast- line of his langdom began at the territory of the Abderites and stretched as far as the Ister? Ruver, and for à man going fiom the sea to the interior the